Imanza 10 zahinduye amateka ku Isi

Imanza 10 zahinduye amateka ku Isi

Nubwo ubutabera bwa kera bwo muru Egiputa bwariho mu myaka 3000 BC (Mbere ya Kirisitu-MK), Codex Hammurabi z”Umwami Hammurabi zishobora kuba arizo code (igitabo cy‘amategeko/ibitabo by’amategeko) za mbere mu mateka zashyizwe mu nyandiko.

Iri tegeko rya Babiloni  ryateguwe n’Umwami Hammurabi mu 1760 mbere ya Kristo BC (cyangwa 1760 MK) ryari riconzwe mu bice by’amabuye (stone slabs); rwari rwarakwirakwirijwe mu bwami bwe bwose (igihugu cyose).

Mu Buhindi no mu Bushinwa naho harangwaga ubutabera bwa gakondo bwari bwanditswe mu bitabo bya kera.

Urubanza rucibwa “n’igikoresho” cyo gukemura amakimbirane no kutumvikana ubundi bidashobora gukemurwa mu buryo busanzwe. Icyo gihe ababurana bashakisha ibimenyetso, bakaburana, bakabazanya, bakarega cyangwa kwiregura imbere y’ababuranya-(umucamanza).

Ubucamanza bugomba kutabogamira uruhande urwo arirwo rwose nubwo amateka yaranze no kunengwa k’imikorere y’ubutabera ku Isi.

Ni ukubera iyo mpamvu haranzwe no kunenga ubutabera ngo bwabogamiraga ku ruhande rw’abishoboye bugakandamiza abakene. Hakaba hari imanza 10 zaranzwe no kugaragaza no gucibwa munzira zidasobanutse uko zaciwe igihe ukuri kuza kuzamenyekana haciye imyaka myishi.

Izo manza zikaba ari za: Socrates; Eichmann; Conversos; Nuremberg; Dreyfus; Galileo Galilei [Galilee];Ubulozi/Abalozi bwi/bi Salem [Salem Witchcraft]; Abalozi ba Pendle [Pendle Witches]; Guantanamo Bay 9/11 nu rwa Zacarias  Moussaoui.

 

 

  1. Urubanza rwa Socrates

Socrates, yari umufilozofe w’icyamamare w’Umugiriki  ufite uruhare runini muri filozofi y’ibihugu bw’iburengerazuba kubera inyandiko ye imaze iminsi ibihumbi yise Apologia bisobanuye “ubwirinzi”(defense) mu kigiriki.

Umunyeshuri we Plato icyendagusa yasobanuye uko umwalimu we yisobanuye mu rukiko, ku birego bamuregaga ko yayobyaga urubyiruko rw’Abagiriki no gusebya ibigirwamana by’Abagiriki by‘icyo gihe.

Urubanza rwe rwabaye afite imwaka 70, ahamwa n’icyaha bamucira urwo gupfa-bamuhaye uburozi. Igihano bamukatiye nticyatangaje Socrates. Nk‘uko Plato yabivuze mu  gihe cye cya nyuma ajya gupfa  yaravuze ati “Isaha yo kugenda irageze, Ngewe gupfa, wowe kubaho. Icyiza ni ikihe?, Imana gusa niyo ibizi”

 

  1. Urubanza rwa Otto Adolf Einchmann

Otto Adolf Eichmann Yari Umudage w’Umunazi (Nazi) akaba na ofisiye wagize uruhare mu bwicanyi budasanzwe-itsembatsemba (holocaust) ryahitanye Abayahudi barenga miliyoni esheshatu mu cyiswe “Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi”.

Nyuma y‘iyo ntambara yahunngiye muri Argentina akora mu ruganda rwa Mercedes-Benz kugera mu mwaka 1960 aho afatiwe na ba maneko ba  Mossad (ubutasi bw’Isirayeli) bakamutwara muri Isirayeli.

Yaburanishirijwe I Yeruzaremu, urubanza rwe rwitabirwa n’abanyamakuru amagana baturutse kw’isi hose. Yashinjwe ibyaha 15 harimo nibyo guhohotera  inyokomuntu.

Igihe cy’urubanza rwe yari mu kumba k’ibirahure aboneka nk’umuntu witonze cyane, Ataboneka nk’umuntu w’umugome  ruharwa nk’uko benshi baribabimuziho. Yahamwe n’icyaha bamucira urwo gupfa anyongwa mu 1962.

  1. Imanza za ba Conversos

Mu binyejana, Esipanye [Spain] yari ihuriro ry’abantu benshi bafite imyemerere n’imico itandukanye. Ibintu biza guhinduka nyuma yaho igihe ubwami bw’icyo gihugu butangije icyiswe Reconquisto. Byatewe n’imyerere mishya ya kigatulika yashyizweho n’icyiswe Suprema mu 1483.

Abaribahinduye amadini ari ababaye Abayisilamu cyangwa Abandi Bakirisitu bitwaga Conversos bacirwaga imanza badafite ababunganira. Abahamwaga n’ibyaha bicwaga rubozo ndetse n’abandi bagacirwa urwo gupfa.

 

  1. Imanza za Nuremberg

Abashinjwaga i Nuremberg

 

Amarorerwa n’ibyaha byakorewe ikiremwamuntu n’Abanazi (Nazis) mu gihe cy’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi hakavamo n’intandaro y’impfu z’Abayahudi barenga miliyoni esheshatu byatangaje binatigisa isi yose. Hashinzwe urukiko rwa gisirikare i Nuremberg mu

Ubudage kuburanisha abayobozi baba Nazi babigizemo uruhare. Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbles bo bari bamaze kwiyahura, abari basigaye harimo Hermann Goering yaburanishirijwe i Nuremberg, yahamwe n’icyaha cyo guhohotera ikiremwamuntu akatirwa urwo gupfa anyonzwe.Ariko buri busye akanyogwa yariyahuye akoreresheje aside yitwa cyanide. Imanza za Nuremberg zabaye intangarugero ku isi ku bayobozi bo hejuru muri za leta, ko nabo bashobora guhanwa bamwe n’ibyaha  byo guhohotera ikiremwamuntu.

  1. Urubanza rwa Alfred Dreyfus

Gusuzuguzwa kwa Alfred Dreyfus

 

Alfred Dreyfus yari kapiteni mu gisikare cy’Abafaransa  akaba yararezwe ko yagurishije amabanga akomeye y’igisirikare cy’Ubufaransa ku Bubudage.

Dreyfus ntiyigeze yemera icyaha na rimwe mu rubanza rwe yakomeje no gushimangira ko  ari umwere. Abafaransa ntibabyumviseho kimwe kuri iki kibazo. Intiti z’Abafaransa bemeraga ubwere bwe, bakemeza ko ibyo bamureze bidahwitse. Ariko mu isomwa ry’urubanza  mu rukiko rwa gisirikare yahamijwe icyaha cyo guhemukira igihugu (high treason). yakatiwe gufungwa igifungo cya burundu aho yamariye imwaka muri gereza mu kirwa cyitwa Devil’s Island (Ikirwa cya Shetani).

Icyamamare mu bwanditsi bw’ibitabo, Emile Zola, yandikiye ibaruwa ifunguye Perezida w’Ubufaransa ashyigikiye Dreyfus. Perezida aho guha iyo baruwa agaciro ahubwo nawe yaramufunze. Nyuma ariko Perezida yaje kumuha imbabazi ahabwa n’umudari witwa Legion of Honor.

  1. Urubanza rwa Galileo Galilei [Galilee]

 

Galileo Galilei mu rukiko

 

Galileo Galilei, uzwi nka Se wa Siyanse yavumbuye ko Isi yizunguruka kandi izunguruka n’Izuba ; ukuri kwari gutandukanye n’ibitekerezo bya Kiliziya Gatolika, mu myumvire yayo akaba ari ukunyomoza inyandiko ntagatifu.

Igitekerzo cye cyarasuzuguwe Galileo Galilei araharabikwa ahindurwa umunyacyaha ndetse  ahamagarwa ku kicaro cyitwaga Ofisi Ntagatifu (Holy Office).Yasabye ko atajyayo, baramwangira bisabwa ko ajyayo, kandi hari kure cyane mu gihe  cy’imbeho nyinshi kandi ari umusaza rukukuri.

Mu rubanza rwe rwabereye Vatican yahamwe n’icyaha  cyo gutanga ibitekerezo gisobanye n’amahame matagatifu. Kubera iyo mpamvu yafungiwe mu nzu ye. Ni nyuma yimwaka 300 kiliziya yaje kwemeranya  n’ibyo yavuze-Galileo Galilei iryo yavuze riba impamo.

  1. Urubanza rw’uburozi bwi Salem mu 1692.

 

Urubanza rw’uburozi bwi Salem

 

Samuel Parris, umutangabutumwa yahamagariwe gutanga ubutumwa i Salem. Ali hamwe n’umugore we Elizabeth, umukobwa we Betty, mwishwa we Abigail n’umuja wabo  Tituba bimukiyeyo . Nko mu 1692, Betty yararwaye  hanyuma imiti yose bamuhaga inanirwa kumuvura. Umuganga wo kuri uwo musozi ababwira ko indwara ye yaba yaratewe  n’intandaro zihanitse (supernatural), bikaba byari birenze  ubushobozi bwe. Yatekereje ko ari uburozi, Tatuba na Abigail yabaketse  nabo ko ari abarozi.

Hanyuma  abahanga mu buvuzi baje gutanga igitekerezo ko ashobora kuba yarariye ibiryo byandujwe n’isumu ituruka mu kinyampeke gisa n’umucheri [rye]. Biratinda hanyuma hamwe na Betty, Abigail na Tituba, abandi bantu bane nabo barezwe ibirozi.

Abo bari; Ann Putman, Elizabeth Hubbard, Susana Sheldom na Mary Warren. Guverineri Phips yashinze icyo bise “Urukiko rwa Oyer Terminer” [“Court of Oyer Terminer”] abakekagwa bose byahamijwe ko  bakekwaho gutanga uburozi.

Abantu barenga 19 baranyonzwe kugeza aho ihiga bukware ry’abarozi rihagaritswe.

  1. Imanza z’abarozi ba Pendle

Abashinjwaga ko ari abarozi Anne Whittle (Chattox) n’umukobwa we Anne Redferne

 

Urubanza rw’i Pendle rwarimo imiryango ibiri yaregwaga uburozi ariyo; uwa ba Demdikes na ba Chattoxes. Abarozi baregwaga barimo:  Elizabeth Southern, Elizabeth Device, James, Alizone Device, Anne Whittle, na Anne Redferne, Jane Bulcock, John Bulcock, Alice Nutter, Katherine Hewitt, Alice Gray, na Jennet Preston. Muri 11 bagejejwe mu rukiko mu 1612, 9 bahamanwe n’icyaha cyo kuba abarozi bacirwa urwo kwicwa banyonzwe.

 

 

  1. Urubanza rwa  9/11  i Guantanamo Bay

Pirizo  ya Guatanamo Bay

 

Pirizo ya Guantanamo Bay iranengwa ku Isi hose. Abantu batanu baregwaga kuba baracuze umugambi wo kugaba igitero cya 9/11 ku Minara y’Impanga [Twin Towers]. Khalid Shaikh Mohammad niwe wakekagwa ko ariwe wari uyoboye abacuze uwo mugambi. Mu gihe cyo kuburana abaregwaga bose banze gusubiza ibibazo babazwaga n’umushinjacyaha mukuru,  Brig. Gen. Mark Martins, yavuze ko yari yizeye  ababunganira ko bashobora kujurira banenga ko imigendeshereze y’urwo rubanza yari idahwitse kandi  itemewe n’itegeko nshinga. Abaregwaga bakaba barashyirwaga ahantu hatazwi, nk’uko Umusaraba Utukura [Red Cross] wabivuze bakaba barishwe rubozo.

  1. Urubanza rwa Zacarias Moussaoui.

 

Zacarias Moussaoui

 

Zacarias Moussaoui  ni Umufaransa ufite inkomoko yo muri Morocco. Niwe muntu umwe rukumbi waburanishirijwe muri America kubyerekeranye n’amarorerwa y’itariki 9/11. Ngo n’ubwo nta burambe yari afite bwo gutwara indege, nibura n’indege  nto, ariko aza kuriha  $19,000 kugira ngo yige gutwara indege yo mu bwoko bwa Boeing 747.

Inshuti y’uwari kuba umwalimu we yamuburiye ko adashira uwo mugabo amakenga. Umunsi ukurikiyeho FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation-maneko b’igipolisi cya Leta zunz’Ubumwe z’Amerika) baramufashe bamushinja kudakurikiza amategeko yo gusohoka no kwinjira mu gihugu bashaka guhisha ibanga.

Moussaoui yemeye icyaha  muri Mata, 2005. Itariki 3 Gicurasi  Brinkman amusomera urubanza yagize  ati “Twebwe abacamanza twese hamwe dusanze ko igihano cy’urupfu  kidakwiye guhabwa ushinjwa”.

Ku musozo izi manza z’ibyamamare zahinduye amateka bitavugwa ko zari ntamakemwa mu kutabogama. Kubogama no kudasesengura neza amategeko ntabwo aribyo byari mutima nama w’imanza zagombaga gukurikiza amategeko y’ubucamanza.

Tubikesha urubuga rwa interineti [http://famous101.com/famous-trials-that-changed-history].

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