Imyaka 10 irashize Col Muammar Gaddafi yishwe

Imyaka 10 irashize Col Muammar Gaddafi yishwe n’abamurwanya bigaragambije mu 2011. Iyi tariki yishweho ntabwo uri ku kirangaminsi cya Libya nk’udasanzwe, ariko ni umunsi ushobora kutazibagirana mu mateka y’icyo gihugu na Africa aho yari icyamamare.

Umunyamakuru wa BBC Rana Jawad yari muri Libya ubwo Ghaddafi yicwaga, avuga ko nyuma yo kumufatira aho yari yihishe kumwica byari ikimenyetso cy’ibyari byitezwe.
Gusa kuva icyo gihe Libya ntiyongeye kuba uko yahoze, igihugu cyinjiye mu ntambara z’urudaca z’ubutegetsi zifite inkomo hanze n’imbere mu gihugu, zitatanya abagituye.

Iyi myaka 10 y’intambara z’imbere mu gihugu yahanaguye icyizere cyariho mu 2011 cyo gutangira bushya byari byuzuye amahirwe nyuma ya Gaddafi.
Ariko igihugu cyaguye mu kaga kugeza ubwo Abanya-Libya benshi uyu munsi bifuza ibihe by’amahoro, umutekano, wenda n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Gaddafi, nk’uko Rana abivuga.

Muri iyi myaka 10, muri Libya hamaze kuba amatora abiri y’abagize Inteko Ishingamategeko, aheruka ya 2014 yasize igihugu gicitsemo kabiri, ubutegetsi bumwe buri i Benghazi mu burasirazuba ubundi i Tripoli mu burengerazuba.
Aho ubuzima bwe bwatangiriye niho bwarangiriye.
Umuhungu wavukiye i Sirte, yabyirutse akunda politiki ya Gamal Abdel Nasser wa Misiri, ubwo yari umusirikare muto aza kugambirira guhirika ubwami bwa Idris ntibyakunda, akomeza amasomo ya gisirikare mu Bwongereza.
Ku ipeti rya kapiteni, Gaddafi yasubiye i Benghazi mu 1969 aho yatangirije coup d’etat itaramennye amaraso ubwo Umwami Idris yari yagiye kwivuza muri Turkiya.

Ntiyiyise perezida, yavuze ko ari umuyobozi w’impinduramatwara, igikorwa cya mbere yakoze ni ukwirukana abaturage b’Abataliyani babaga muri Libya.
Muammar Gaddafi yavugaga ko ari umuntu ugamije impinduramatwara yo kunga ibice byinshi bitandukanye by’Abarabu, nyuma anaba impirimbanyi y’ubumwe bwa Africa.
Mu myaka 20 ya mbere ku butegetsi bwe, Libya yabaye igihugu gifite abanzi bakomeye ku isi ubwo uyu mu-colonel w’amashagaga yakoreshaga ubutunzi bw’ibitoro by’igihugu mu gufasha imitwe iharanira ubwigenge nka Irish Republican Army na Palestine Liberation Organisation.


Kimwe na Nasser, ntabwo yigeze yizamura ipeti ngo abe jenerali, nk’uko byari umuco mu basirikare benshi bafataga ubutegetsi icyo gihe, yagumye ku ipeti rya colonel. Byari bihuye n’igitekerezo cye ko Libya “itegekwa na rubanda”.


Ibitekerezo by’imitegekere ye yabishyize mu gitabo yise ‘Green Book’ cyasohotse mu 1970 aho avuga ku buryo bwo kuvanga ubutegetsi bwa gikapitalisti na gikomunisti ariko binarikumwe n’amahame amwe ya Islam.
Nubwo business yayirekeye rubanda, leta niyo yari ifite ibigo binini birimo n’ibijyanye n’ibitoro.
Mu 1977 yahimbye uburyo bw’imitegekere yise “Jamahiriya” cyangwa “ubutegetsi bwa benshi”, aho ubutegetsi bwagombaga kuba mu maboko ya “komite za rubanda”.

Nta muntu washidikanyaga ko ari we ugenzura kandi akagenga byose, ntiyorohaga ku uwariwe wese wajyaga kumugaragaro akerekana ibitekerezo bitavuga rumwe n’ibye.
Izo komite zagiye zisaba ko abatavuga rumwe na leta bahungiye mu mahanga bicwa, mu myaka ya 1980 bohereza abacanyi kubikora.

Ubutegetsi bwe bwashinjwe guhonyora uburenganzira bwa muntu bikabije, gufunga abantu amagana batavuga rumwe na Gaddafi, iyicarubozo no kuburirwa irengero kwa benshi.
Ubwicanyi kuri Ambasade ya Libya i London, kwica abakinnyi ba Israel mu mikino olempike y’i Berlin, guturitsa inzu y’urubyiniro i Berlin, gutangiza gahunda yo gukora intwaro kirimbuzi, n’ibindi byatumye akomeza kuzirana n’ibihugu by’iburengerazuba.

Urwango ye n’ibyo bihugu rwageze ku gasongero mu 1988 ubwo indege yari ivuye i Frankfurt igana Detroit iciye i London yaturitswaga n’igisasu cyayitezwemo igeze i Lockerbie muri Scotland hapfa abantu 270, hashize imyaka 15 mbere y’uko Libya yemera uruhare rwayo.
Amerika yagabye ibitero by’indege kuri Libya bigamije kumwica biramuhusha, isi ikomanyiriza ibitoro bya Libya no gukorayo ishoramari.

Imyambarire idasanzwe kandi y’agahebuzo iri mu byamurangaga
Igitutu cyatumye Gaddafi atangira kwamagana iterabwoba, yemera kwishyura abagizweho ingaruka n’igitero cya Lockerbie, n’ibihano UN/ONU yafatiye Libya bivanwaho, nawe yemera kureka umugambi w’intwaro kirimbuzi, atangira kuba inshuti n’iburengerazuba ndetse bivugwa ko Libya yahise itangira gufasha ubutasi bwa Amerika guhiga al-Quaeda.

Mu gihugu, Libya yari iteye imbere, abaturage bayo bari bamwe mu bafite imibereho myiza, ibikorwa remezo nkenerwa by’ibanze, n’amahoro.
Yateje imbere igihugu cye mu buryo budashidikanywagaho, ariko ntiyateza imbere ubwisanzure na demokarasi nk’ishingiro ry’amahoro arambye, nk’uko inzobere mu miyoborere zabimunengaga.
Gaddafi yaranzwe n’udushya twarimo abagore bamurindaga, indege ye yari agatangaza yitwaga ingoro ye, ndetse n’imyambarire ye bivugwa ko yari agahebuzo.

Imigumuko yo kumuhirika

Ubucuti n’ibihugu by’iburengerazuba bwatumye ibihugu by’Abarabu binenga Gaddafi gucudika n’abakeba.
Mu gihugu bamwe muri rubanda bifuzaga impinduka uburakari bwabo bwagiye buzamuka buhoro buhoro, bavugaga ko batabona ibyiza bya Libya, batisanzuye cyangwa binubira serivisi mbi mu bigenewe rubanda.
Ubu burakari bwaraseruye buvamo imigumuko ikomeye mu 2011 yahagurukiye i Benghazi, bihawe intege n’impinduka zahiritse Hosni Mubarak mu Misiri, na Ben Ali muri Tunisia.

Abacanshuro Gaddafi yahaye akazi hamwe n’abashinzwe umutekano basakiranye n’abigaragambya nabo bari bafashe intwaro, bivugwa ko abantu amagana bishwe.
Ibyo byatumye akanama gashinzwe umutekano ka ONU kanzura ikoreshwa ry’ingufu, maze Amerika n’inshuti zayo baciye muri NATO batangira kurasa ku ngabo za leta bakoresheje indege.
Ibihugu bimwe byamaganye NATO kwivanga mu kibazo cya Libya, Africa – umugabane Gaddafi yavugaga ko yifuza ko uba igihugu kimwe – ntiyavuze rumwe kuri iki kibazo.

Abategetsi bamwe bagaragaje ko bifuza ko ahirikwa, abandi ko ikibazo cya Libya kitarebaga amahanga.
Ariko Gaddafi yari asumbirijwe, nyuma y’uko ingabo ze zikwiriye imishwaro mu kwezi kwa munani 2011 abamurwanya bafashe Tripoli bashyiraho leta y’inzibacuho.

Gaddafi yakomeje kubura, kugeza kuwa kane tariki 20 z’ukwa 10/2011 ubwo yafatwaga yihishe munsi y’iteme mu mujyi avukamo wa Sirte.
Hari nyuma y’uko indege z’Abafaransa zirashe itsinda ry’imodoka 75 zarimo imwe imutwaye ziri gusohoka mu mujyi wa Sirte nawo wari usumbirijwe.
Abishi be bamukurubanye mu mihanda bagenda bamukubita, ari nako abinginga ko atari umwanzi wabo, ariko umwe muri bo aza kumurasa arapfa.
Iby’ubuzima bwe byarangiye aho bwatangiriye iwabo, ariko iby’ubutegetsi bwe ntibizibagirana vuba, imyaka 10 nyuma ye Libya ntikiri nk’iyo mu gihe cye.

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