Rwanda: Urugendo rurerure mu kunga abanyarwanda

Komisiyo y’Igihugu y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge (NURC) ivuga ko nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ubu ubwiyunge bugeze ku rwego rwiza n’ubwo hakiri urugendo. Ariko amwe mu magambo avugwa n’abava mu moko yahozeho mu Rwanda, agaragaza ko urugendo mu nzira y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge rushobora kuba rukiri rurerure kurusha uko bigaragazwa n’ibipimo bya NURC.

“Nabonye ababyeyi banjye n’abavandimwe bose mu miborogo bari kwicwa, uwa nyuma yamfiriye mu biganza, ni amateka ahora agaruka, kubabarira birashoboka ariko biragoye.”  Uwo ni umwe mu bacitse ku icumu rya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 utarifuje ko amazina ye agaragara.

Undi wacitse ku icumu we avuga ibinyuranye n’ibyo kuko ahamya ko imbabazi basabwe bazitanze cyakora akavuga ko bagomba kuguma bari maso. Ati “FPR yadusabye umusanzu wo kubabarira turawuyiha, ariko izambabarire ntizansabe uwo kwibagirwa, kuko abo twababariye ntabwo badukunda, hagize agakoma gato bakongera bakatwica.”

Ariko izo mbabazi abazihawe barabishidikanyaho. Umwe muri bo ati “Nta mbabazi erega baduha, ni ukurenzaho, cyakora abanyapolitiki baraduhemukiye kuko baduteranyije n’abavandimwe, ariko naricujije ku Mana.”

Ibyo birashimangirwa n’umwe mu bacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside. Ati “ Ntabwo imbabazi twabahaye bazakiriye, ndabibona hano mu giturage, n’iyo umutumiye mu bukwe aza yikandagira cyangwa ntanaze, ntabwo bashaka kubohoka.”

Hari n’abafunzwe barengana, nta ruhare na ruto bagize muri jenoside ahubwo bazira imitungo yabo. Umwe mu ruhande rw’abaregwa ati” Data yarafunzwe azira jenoside kandi  nta muntu yishe, yaragambaniwe, ntabwo abantu ari beza kuko babikoze bashaka imitungo yacu.”

Raporo ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge zirakemangwa

Ayo ni amwe mu magambo avugwa na bamwe mu bagize imiryango nyarwanda. Iyo uyahuje na bimwe mu bikubiye mu maraporo agaragaza ibipimo ku ikurikirana ry’uko amahame y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge yubahirizwa cyane cyane mu bihe byo kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, usanga ibyegeranyo bitangwa n’iyo komisiyo bikemangwa n’abantu batandukanye.

Fidele Ndayisaba, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa muri Komisiyo y’Ubumwe n’Ubwiyunge (foto Internet)

Kuri Komisiyo y’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge, ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda bwagezweho, ndetse n’umuyobozi wayo Fidele Ndayisaba akaba avuga ko hari ingero nyinshi z’abantu babanye neza kandi imiryango yabo ariyo yagize uruhare mu kwica abandi.

Raporo ibigaragaza yakozwe n’uru rwego (Rwanda reconciliation Barometer 2015), igaragaza ko ari 92,5%  by’ikigeero cy’ubwiyunge kandi bikaba biteganyijwe ko icyo gipimo kiziyongera kugera kuri 96% mu mwaka wa 2024.

Raporo shya ya 2021 yasohowe n a NURC, igaragaza ko igipimo cy’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge cyazamutse kugera ku 94%, bivuze ko imibare igenda izamuka ishimangira ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda

Nyamara imanza zijyanwa mu nkiko z’ibirego by’ingengabitekerezo n’ivangura ntibihwema kugaragara.

Ingero z’izo manza ni nka Giheke muri Rusizi, hari Dosiye yashyikirijwe ubushinjacyaha ihabwa no DTF: 00125/IPRLRUSI/2018/DB, igaragazamo ko kuwa 21 Mata 2018 abaregwa 2 ubwo bari mu biganiro barahagurutse maze baravuga ngo mu mudugudu wabo nta muntu n’umwe urimo wazize jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi kandi bari bazi neza ko bahari, cyane ko bafunguwe  kubera kwemera no gusaba imbabazi ku ruhare bagize muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi muri Mata 1994.

Urundi rugero na none muri Rusizi, mu bushinjacyaha hari dosiye DTF:00146/IPRLRUSI/2018/DB ivuga ko kuwa 28 Mata 2018, aho abaregwa bafashe uwahahamutse mu gihe cyo kwibuka, bakamufata bakamukubita bamubwira bati “uba wihahamukishwa kugira ngo ubone uko urya amafaranga ya Leta” ibyo babikoze kuko bari bazi ko ahabwa amafaranga y’ingoboka na FARG.

Na none Gishyita muri Karongi kuwa 21 Kamena 2018 uregwa yabwiye umugore ngo “azasubize iyo mibu y’Abatutsi mu Bisesero, avuga abana b’uyu mugore yatahanye iwe.“

Ibitajyanwa mu nkiko nibyo byinshi

KabaIisa (izina mpimbano), umwe mu basesengura iby’ubumwe n’ubwiyunge mu Banyarwanda, yatubwiye ko raporo zisohoka ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge ziba zagabanyijwemo ubukana kugira ngo badakura umutima Abanyarwanda, ngo ariko inzangano zishingiye ku moko ziracyagaragara mu bice bimwe na bimwe.

Kabalisa ashimangira ko no mu banyarwanda batandukanye bahitamo kutarega mu gihe bahohotewe kubera ubwoko, ariko  ko abenshi bibababaza mu mitima.

Uyu mugabo kandi yatubwiye ko abakunda kujya mu tubari dutandukanye, habayo abantu bakunda kuvuga amoko cyane kurusha ahandi, ariko avuga ko ari ibyo yabonye akoresheje ubushishozi bwe ko nta bushakashatsi yabikoze ho.

Ibi Kabalisa yatubwiye ntibitandukanye cyane n’ibikubiye muri raporo zigaragaza ibirego ku byaha bifitanye isano n’ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, byageze mu bushinjacyaha, aho mu Ntara y’i Burengerazuba gusa, ibyaha byaregewe urukiko by’abifuza kongera gukora jenoside byari ku kigero cya 33% ubwo Abanyarwanda bibukaka jenoside ku nshuro ya 24.

Abafungurwa bakoze jenoside ntibyakirwa neza

Hari abashidikanya ku mbabazi zasabwe na bamwe bakoze Jenoside, ngo kuko bishakiraga gukora imirimo nsimburagifungo nyuma bakarekurwa

Mu itangazo ryigeze risohorwa na kiliziya risabira abakoze Jenoside bafite intege nke guhabwa imbabazi bagafungurwa, ndetse rikaza kuvugururwa nayo, byateje impaka mu Banyarwanda ndetse n’umuryango urengera inyungu z’abacitse ku icumu rya jenoside Ibuka uraryamagana.

Kamanzi Elie (si amazina ye nyakuri) yagize ati « wambwira ute ngo umuntu afungurwe kuko ari umusaza, kandi yarishe abandi basaza ?», uyu musore uri mu kigero cy’imyaka 35, yabwiye ikinyamakuru Intego ko abishwe nabo bari abasaza n’abarwayi, bityo bakaba bagomba guhana abakoze jenoside nta kujenjeka.

Indorerwamo y’amoko mu masura

Akenshi usanga mu mashuri byikora, aho abana bamwe batangira kugendana ariko ukazasanga inyuma harimo no kuba bahuje amoko, aho akenshi baganira kuri bene ibyo biganiro biganisha ku mateka yabaye mu Rwanda, abisanze mu rwego rumwe rwo guhuza amateka, bagahita batangira no kugendana, ngo cyakora n’ubwo batabivuga ku mugaragaro ariko uzi gushishoza abonamo urwikekwe nk’uko twabibwiwe n’umwe mu banyeshuri biga  muri Kaminuza i Musanze.

Ibi kandi bijyana n’ipfunwe ku bana bafite imiryango y’abakoze jenoside, n’ubwo ibi byazamuwe cyane n’umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Minisiteri y’urubyiruko n’umuco Bamporiki Edouard, ubwo yabigaragazaga muri gahunda ya Ndi Umunyarwanda, byagarutsweho cyane na bamwe mu bana batinya kuvuga ko ababyeyi babo bakoze jenoside,  kugira ngo bagenzi babo batabareba nabi.

Ikinyamakuru Intego cyabashije kuvugana na bamwe mu bana bafite ba se bafungiye jenoside, bavuga ko uwabahitishamo bari guhitamo kubaho nta babyeyi bagira aho kwitwa abana bavuka ku mujenosideri, aba bana bemeza ko bibabangamira kuvuga inkomoko yabo.

Amoko yose agaragaraho amacakubiri

Amakuru twahawe n’abantu tutifuza kugaragaza amazina yabo ariko bakora mu butabera avuga ko ibyahoze byitwa amoko mu Rwanda (Abahutu n’Abatutsi) bigaragaza ivangura byose, ariko ngo na none abahoze bitwa Abahutu bagaragaye ho ivangura bari ku kigero cyo hejuru ya 90% ugereranyije n’abandi, ngo aha bikaba biterwa n’uko bo banarenga bagakora ibyaha by’ingengabitekerezo, guhakana jenoside, gupfobya jenoside no kugaragaraza ko habayeho jenoside ebyiri.

Imibare ku byaha bifitanye isano na jenoside ntabwo igaragara

Ibibazo  bigaragara mu bumwe n’ubwiyunge twagarutseho haruguru, byatumye dushaka imibare y’abakoze jenoside bemeye ibyaha, bakagabanyirizwa ibihano, bamwe bagakora imirimo nsimburagifungo, abandi bakarangiza ibihano bagataha, ariko mu nzego z’ubutabera twasabye iyo mibare batubwiye ko ntayo bafite.

Imibare y’abarekuwe n’imbabazi nyuma yo guhamwa n’ibyaha bya Jenoside nayo ntigaragazwa, ibi bituma habaho amakuru atagaragara neza kandi amakuru n’imibare byafasha mu ngamba zo gukumira ibibazo by’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda

Muri izo nzego harimo Minisiteri y’ubutabera yatwohereje gusaba iyo mibare mu rwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe abagororwa RCS

Twasabye kandi urukiko rw’ikirenga imibare y’Abanyarwanda bakatiwe kubera ibyaha bya Jenoside, umuvugizi wabo bwana Mutabazi Harrison, atwohereza kwa Hategekimana Daniel umuyobozi ushinzwe igenamigambi (director of planning) nawe atubwira ko ntayo bafite.

Naho mu rwego rw’ubushinjacyaha bwa repubulika, muri raporo igaragaza ibikorwa byakozwe mu mwaka wa 2018-2019, imibare igaragaza abantu bagejejwe imbere y’ubutabera kubera ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’ibyaha bifitanye isano nayo mu mwaka wa 2018-2019 bangana na 333.

Cyakora urubuga rw’ubushinjacyaha twakuyeho ayo makuru ntirugaragaza bafite umwihariko wo kuba barakurikiranyweho icyaha cya jenoside bakabihanirwa, bakarekurwa, nyuma bakaza gukurikiranwaho icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’ibifitanye isano nayo, cyane ko ari nabo bakunze gushyirwa mu majwi, ubwo twavuganaga n’abarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi 1994.

Abahagarariye inyungu z’abarokotse

Bwana Muneza Emmanuel umuyobozi wa AERG ku rwego rw’igihugu we avuga ko, we nk’umuntu abona ubumwe bw’abayarwanda bugeze ku gipimo cya 65%, aho ashimagira ko n’ubwo abakorewe ibyaha bya jenoside batanze imbabazi ariko ngo nta guhinduka kunini mu mibanire. Ati “ hari abagiye basaba imbabazi gusa kuko bashakaga kwitahira bagakora imirimo nsimburagifungo”.  Avuga ko bene aba, n’iyo muhuye ubona ko harimo akantu.

Muneza avuga ko imbabazi atari ikintu ushobora guhatira umuntu kugitanga cyangwa kucyakira, ngo ahubwo ni urugendo rwo kwigishwa gahoro gahoro kugira ngo uzitanga abanze aniyakire atari ukuvuga ngo nimutange imbabazi ni gahunda ya Leta. Ariko kandi abantu bibaze ngo nyuma y’imbabazi hakurikiraho iki? Hanarebwe niba koko abazihawe bitwara nk’abantu bahindutse.

Uyu mugabo ariko ashima Leta y’ubumwe bw’abanyarwanda kuko hari  intambwe nini igenda iterwa cyane cyane iyo abarokotse jenoside bafite imibereho myiza, ariko ngo biba bibi iyo bagifite ibibazo by’imibereho kuko nibwo bibuka ko iyo baba bafite ababyeyi bari kubafasha.

Padiri Ubald Rugirangoga uheruka kwitaba Imana, mu bikowa by’isanamitima abinyujije mu nyigisho za Kiliziya, nawe yagiye agaragara kenshi asaba Abanyarwanda gusaba imbabazi no kuzitanga kabone n’ubwo uwaguhemukiye atazigusabye. Ariko bamwe mu barokotse Jenoside bavuga ko  bigoye gutanga imbabazi utazisabwe cyane cyane iyo ari ibyaha bw’ubugome ndengakamere.

Cyakora ku ruhande rwa Padiri Ubald we, ngo hari abenshi bamaze gukira ibikomere binyuze mu nzira yo gusaba no gutanga imbabazi, ibi yabihurizagaho na NURC.

Muri ibi bihe abanyarwanda bibuka jenocide yakorewe abatutsi ku nshuro ya 27, hamaze kugaragara amagambo ubugenzacyaha buvuga ko apfobya jenoside avugwa n’abayirokotse, bituma bamwe babona ko impungenge z’ibibazo by’amoko zizaguma kwiyongera cyane cyane binyujijwe ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Itegeko no 84/2013 ryo ku wa 11/09/2013 ryavuguruwe mu mwaka wa 2018  rigena ibyaha n’ibihano ryerekeye guhana icyaha cy’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside n’ibindi bifitanye isano nayo, naryo ni ikimenyetso cyerekana ko nta kujenjekera abantu bashobora gukurura amacakubiri mu banyarwanda.

Uko Imibare y’abahakana n’abapfobya Jenoside akorewe abatutsi igenda ihinduka umwaka ku wundi
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