Inyangamugayo mu nkiko za rubanda zifasha mugutanga ubutabera

Imanza zikurikirana abakoze Jenoside bari hanze y’u Rwanda, ziburanishwa akenshi n’inkiko za rubanda zitandukanye n’inkiko zisanzwe. Izi zitwa Cours  d’Assises/courts of Assizes zigira ububasha nk’ubw’izindi  nkiko nubwo ziba zirimo na rubanda rusanzwe(inyangamugayo). Nyamara zihamya ibyaha zikanatanga ibihano. Izi nkiko ziha umwanya inyangamugayo bakorana bate?  

Ijambo “muyobozi” rigenga inkiko za rubanda rigendera ku ihame ry’amategeko ko ubutabera butangwa mu izina rya rubanda kandi ku bwa rubanda kubw’inyungu za rubanda. (La justice est rendue au nom du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple). Ngiyo impamvu uzumva umunyarwanda runaka cyangwa runaka, muri iyi minsi, yaburanishijwe n’urukiko rwa rubanda rw’i Buruseli cyagwa rw’i Parisi mu Bufaransa. Ukibaza uti « ese ni kuki ataburanishijwe n’izindi nkiko zisanzwe wenda ? Kuki se muri urwo rukiko rwamuburanishije abarimo bose atari abacamanza ahubwo harimo n’inyangamugayo yewe zitize n’amategeko ? »

Rubanda ku bwa rubanda ku karubanda

Urugero rw’urubanza ruherutse kuburanishwa ni urwa Neretse Fabien, umunyarwanda wakekwagaho ibyaha bya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Uyu Neretse yakatiwe n’urukiko rwa rubanda rw’I Buruseli gufungwa imyaka 25 kubwo guhamywa uruhare rwe muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi.  Mu cyumba yaburaniragamo, ni imvange y’iterambere na gakondo by’ababuranisha. Ni inteko y’abacamanza batatu b’umwuga.  Iburyo bwabo hari inteko y’inyangamugayo 12  hamwe n’abasimbura babo 8. Bose ni makumyabiri(20). GUsa uyu mubare utandukana hakurikije ibihugu bifite bene izo nkiko. Si ihame ko inyangamugayo zose ziba ari uwo mubare.

Impamvu harimo abasimbura nuko umwe iyo arwaye undi aza akamusimbura bakurikije uko bicaye ku murongo. Mbese uwa mbere muri ba bandi umunani niwe uhita asimbura undi iyo agize ikibazo. Hagira undi ukigira uwakurikiraga uwa mbere nawe bikagenda bityo. Hatagira ugira ikibazo ba bandi umunani bagakomeza nabo bagakurikira urubanza n’abandi. Mu gihe abacamanza batatu bambara amakanzu yabo y’umwuga,  inyangamugayo zo zambara imyenda isanzwe.

Zitorwa hakurikije imyaka y’ubukure, kuba zidafite imiziro, kuba bari mu baturage bemerewe gutora, kuba batuye mu ifasi y’urukiko, batarigeze bakatirwa igifungo nibura cy’amezi atandatu, kuba bazi kwandika no gusoma… Ikindi kandi bava mu ngeri zitandukanye z’abantu (abaganga, abarimu, abacuruzi…). Batoranirizwa mu rukiko hakoreshejwe kwemera cyangwa kwanga inzitizi buri wese atanga ndetse na tombola ngo haboneke umubare uteganwa. Byumvikane ko urutonde ruvamo umubare wabo aba ari rurerure.   Aba nibo bashyirwa mu biganza urubanza rw’uregwa.

Mu rukiko kandi haba harimo ubushinjacyaha, abauranira uregwa ndetse n’abandi bafite uruhare cyangwa inyungu mu rubanza(parties civiles)

Hari kandi n’umwanya wagenewe uregwa (akazu aba arimo), n’umwanya wagenewe abatangabuhamya, ababuranyi mu gihe cyo gushinja, gushinjura, kwiregura cyangwa gutanga ubuhamya ndetse na rubanda rundi rukurikira urubanza.

Uru rukiko mu busanzwe rusanzwe ruburanisha n’izindi manza zo mu gihugu. Muri zo harimo nk’iz’ubuhotozi, gufata abantu bugwate, ibyaha bya politiki n’ibyitangazamakuru, ibyaha by’intambara, ubu haniyongereyeho n’icyaha cya jenoside n’ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu. Perezida w’urukiko n’ubundi aba ari umucamanza mu nkiko zisanzwe. Nk’urugero Sophie Leclerq wari perezidante w’urukiko mu rubanza rwa Neretse Fabien asanzwe ari umucamanza mu rukiko rw’ubujurire rw’I Buruseli. Muri uru rubanza,  niwe muyobozi, uyobora iburanisha ryose anashinzwe kandi kubahiriza umutekano n’umudendezo  mu cyumba cy’iburanisha. Anafite ububasha ku gutuma ukuri kumenyekana nko kuba yatumiza umutangabuhamya ashaka kugira ngo atange inyunganizi ikenewe ngo ukuri kugaragare.  

Abatangabuhamya bo mu Rwanda no mu mahanga

Kuba haza gutanga ubuhamya abavuye mu gihugu uregwa akekwaho gukoreramo icyaha byo ni ibisanzwe. Ariko ikigira urwo rukiko urukiko rwihariye ni uko, mu batangabuhamya haza n’abo mumahanga, inzobere, abashakashatsi n’abandi. Abo bazwi nka témoins de contexte icyo bakora ni ugufasha kumvisha za nyangamugayo imiterere y’icyaha uregwa aregwa, uko cyakozwe, aho cyakorewe mbese kubumvisha imimerere, uburyo icyaha cyakorewemo. Ibi kandi birumvikana cyane kuko izi nyangamugayo ntiziba zivuka muri icyo gihugu yewe zimwe ntiziba zizi n’amateka yacyo. Niyo mpamvu les témoins de contexte bitabazwa ngo bazifashe kumva amateka n’uburyo icyaha cyakozwemo, bityo bizafashe kumva abatangabuhamya bavuye mu gihugu igihe urubanza ruzaba rurimbanije. Bumve iyo bigana.

Aba batangabuhamya biswe témoins de contexte ntibashinja cyangwa ngo bashinjure. Bavuga ibyo bazi, urugero ku manza z’abanyarwanda bavuga ibyo bazi kuri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ubundi bakagenda. Ibyo kandi ntibivuze ko baba bose ari abanyamahanga hari n’abanyarwanda bashobora kwitabazwa hakurikijwe icyo ubuhamya bwabo buri bwungure ku bumenyi bw’inyangamugayo. Gusa ibyo bavuga bishobora kuba biza bifasha uruhande rushinja cyangwa rushinjura.

Aba batangabuhamya ugeretseho n’abashinja cyangwa abashinjura yaba perezida w’urukiko, abamwungirije babiri, inyangamugayo, umushinjacyaha, abunganizi mu by’amategeko kimwe n’uregwa ubwe, bafite uburenganzira bwo kubabaza.

Umwanzuro wemeza unakatira

Uko urubanza rugenda ruburanishwa n’izo nkiko ni nako birumvikana rugana no ku musozo. Za nyangamugayo nizo zizagira uruhare runini mu kugena niba uregwa ari umwere cyangwa atari we. Zizahabwa urutonde rw’ibyo aregwa zigende zishyira akamenyetso kuri buri kibazo zemeza cyangwa zihakana ko icyo cyaha kimuhama. Ubwiganze bw’abavuga oya cyangwa yego nibwo buzemeza ko uregwa ahamwa cyangwa adahamwa n’icyaha.

Imyanzuro rero ifatwa aba ari ibiri. Uwa mbere ni uwo kwemeza koko ko uregwa ahamwa n’ibyaha yakoze byitwa mu gifaransa verdict de culpabilité. Umwanzuro wa kabiri ni ukugena igihano kijyanye n’icyaha akurikiranweho  byitwa verdict de peine. Nguko uko mu rukiko rwa rubanda rw’i Buruseli, Neretse Fabien yahamwe n’icyaha cyo kugira uruhare muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi,(verdict de culpabilité) noneho agahanishwa igihano cyo gufungwa imyaka makumyabiri n’itanu(verdict de peine).

Icyemezo cy’urukiko kijuririrwa gusa mu rukiko rwa gasesamanza (cour de cassation). Aha ariko naho ujurira ntasaba kongera kugaragaza ko ari umwere ahubwo haba harebwa niba hari amategeko yaba yarahonyowe igihe urubanza rwaburanishwagwa (Procédures juridiques). Nguko uko ubujurire bwa Neretse Fabien bwafashe ubusa, igihano yakatiwe cy’imyaka 25 kigumishwaho.

Uwizeyimana marie Louise

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